Penn World Table

Constructed by Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania, together with the late Irving Kravis, the Penn World Tables are the definitive source for real national accounts data. The national accounts for each country, initially in their own currencies, are adjusted using detailed price data to obtain real national accounts in a common currency (U.S. dollars) across countries. These data are invaluable for making comparisons of Gross Domestic Product across countries, and for all manner of research on development and growth.

There are three sites that support the Penn World Tables (PWT):

Effective with Version 8, the construction of the Penn World Table will occur at the University of California, Davis and the University of Groningen, The Netherlands.  Documentation and data are available at:

PWT Version 8.0
University of Groningen

Version 7.3 of the Penn World Table is available at:

PWT Version 7.3
University of Pennsylvania

Version 6.3 of the Penn World Table is available at:

PWT Version 6.3
University of Toronto


Robert C. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar. Marcel Timmer (2013). “The Next Generation of the Penn World Table,”
NBER Working Paper no. 19255

Heston, Alan and Summers, Robert. (1996). International price and quantity comparisons: potentials and pitfalls. American Economic Review, 86(2), May. 

Nuxoll, Daniel A. (1994). Differences in relative prices and international differences in growth rates. American Economic Review, 84, December, 1423-36. 

Summers, Robert and Heston, Alan. (1988). A new set of international comparisons of real product and price levels estimates for 130 countries, 1950-1985, Review of Income and Wealth, 34(1), March, 1-25. 

Summers, Robert and Heston, Alan. (1991). The Penn World Table (Mark 5): an expanded set of international comparisons, 1950-1988, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), May, 327-68.